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By O. Diego. Fontbonne University. 2018.
Existing research when contrasted with a neutral (63 discount avanafil 100 mg without prescription,72) or pleasant picture suggests that the amygdala plays a critical role in fear condi- (92) comparison condition discount 50 mg avanafil mastercard. In a separate study purchase 50 mg avanafil fast delivery, Lane et tioning (27 purchase avanafil 50 mg overnight delivery,35,74,75,141), and the medial prefrontal cortex al. Functional imaging to study healthy subjects who viewed a videotape of snakes studies have also demonstrated a correlation between amyg- (CS) both before and after the video was paired with shock dala activity during encoding of emotionally arousing pic- (US) (49,52). Although left occipital and superior frontal cortex. A Habituation comparison of the CS versus CS conditions yielded The term habituation refers to a decrement in responses activation in right thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and supe- over repeated presentations of a stimulus. There was a positive correlation between 956 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress activation in thalamus and in right amygdala, orbitofrontal including limbic, paralimbic, and sensory areas. Morris and colleagues subse- with animal data, human imaging results point to a role for quently used PET and backward masking techniques to the amygdala in fear conditioning and for the frontal cortex study rCBF responses to conditioned face stimuli with and in extinction. The accessory role of the hippocampus in without awareness in healthy male subjects (87). CS conditions were compared with all CS conditions, bilateral activation in amygdala was observed. Right amyg- dala activation was found in the condition in which subjects POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER were aware; left amygdala activation was found in the condi- Amygdalocentric Neurocircuitry Model tion in which subjects were unaware of the emotionally expressive face stimuli. We previously presented a neurocircuitry model of PTSD In a single-trial fMRI study, LaBar et al. In the acquisition condition, a tex, and other heteromodal cortical areas purported to me- colored shape (CS ) was paired with a shock (US), whereas diate higher cognitive functions (103). Briefly, this model a different colored shape (CS ) was never paired with hypothesizes hyperresponsivity within the amygdala to shock. No shocks were delivered during the extinction con- threat-related stimuli, with inadequate top-down gover- dition. Comparing CS with CS trials revealed activa- nance over the amygdala by medial prefrontal cortex, specif- tion in periamygdaloid cortex and amygdala during early ically, the affective division of anterior cingulate cortex acquisition and early extinction trials, respectively. Amygdala hyperresponsivity tion in both these regions declined over time. Buchel¨ and mediates symptoms of hyperarousal and explains the indeli- colleagues also used a single-trial fMRI to study the neural ble quality of the emotional memory for the traumatic correlates of fear conditioning in healthy subjects (26). To disambiguate the effects of the CS and US, Further, we propose that in threatening situations, patients the US was not presented on half of the CS trials (i. The critical comparison, CS unpaired versus to regions that mediate fight-or-flight responses and away CS , revealed activation in anterior cingulate, bilateral in- from widespread heteromodal cortical areas, as a neural sub- sular, parietal, supplementary motor, and premotor cortex. A time by event type interaction revealed that fMRI signal in amygdala decreased over time in the CS unpaired condition Structural Imaging Findings relative to the CS condition. These researchers also found conditioning- Bremner and colleagues (21) found that right hippocampal related hippocampal activation that declined over time. In addition, the PTSD group exhibited poorer performance on a standard measure of ver- Summary bal memory, and their percent retention scores on this test Taken together, functional imaging studies in healthy were directly correlated with right hippocampal volume human subjects extend findings from animal research. Gurvits and colleagues (58) used mMRI activity in limbic and paralimbic regions, whereas other ter- to study seven Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD, seven ritories of heteromodal association cortex exhibit decreased Vietnam combat veterans without PTSD, and eight nonvet- activity. However, similar patterns of limbic and paralimbic erans without PTSD. These investigators found signifi- activation may be observed in association with other emo- cantly smaller hippocampal volumes bilaterally for the tional states, and hence this general profile should not be PTSD group in comparison with both control groups. Exposures to unpleasant, Across the 14 veterans, hippocampal volume was inversely arousing, or threat-related stimuli often produce detectable correlated with extent of combat exposure and PTSD symp- amygdala responses, which can be associated with enhanced tom severity. Habi- been reported in mMRI studies of PTSD resulting from tuation can be observed in widely distributed brain regions, childhood abuse. Bremner and colleagues (22) found 12% Chapter 65: Structural and Functional Imaging of Anxiety and Stress Disorders 957 smaller left hippocampal volumes in 17 adult survivors of age and dendritic atrophy in the CA3 region (117). More- childhood abuse with PTSD than in 21nonabused compar- over, chronic stress during development is capable of inhib- ison subjects. Stein and colleagues (134) found 5% smaller iting normal cellular proliferation within the hippocampus, left hippocampal volumes in 21adult survivors of childhood a process mediated by glucocorticoids and glutamatergic sexual abuse (most of whom had PTSD) than in 21non- transmission by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor–depen- abused comparison subjects. Furthermore, total hippocam- dent excitatory pathway (57). However, the PTSD cortisol levels and decreased hippocampal volumes have also group had smaller intracranial and cerebral volumes than been found in patients with major depressive disorder (25). The hippocampus is also involved in the modulation of the Taken together, the results of structural neuroimaging hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and lesions to studies of adult samples suggest that PTSD is associated hippocampus appear to increase the release of glucocorti- with reduced hippocampal volume, which, in turn, may coids during stress (43,60); this, in turn, may further dam- be associated with cognitive deficits and PTSD symptom age the hippocampus (116). Although the extent of traumatic exposure may be Although these findings may have great relevance to anxi- correlated with hippocampal volume, it appears that differ- ety and stress disorders, the picture is complicated by the ences between PTSD and control groups cannot be ex- finding that cortisol levels are characteristically reduced, plained by traumatic exposure alone (58). Stress, Glucocorticoids, and the Functional Imaging Findings Hippocampus Semple and colleagues used PET to study six patients with In this review about neuroimaging of anxiety and stress combat-related PTSD and comorbid substance abuse versus disorders, it is worth elaborating on the potential relation- seven normal control subjects (125).
In the CCG context cheap avanafil 50 mg on-line, cross-boundary intercession and negotiation across professional groups and across organisational boundaries is required generic 50mg avanafil with visa. However avanafil 50 mg on-line, effective and sustained service redesign required matching generic avanafil 200mg mastercard, mutually reinforcing and commensurate action across all three arenas. Clinical leadership is required in at least one of these. Clinical and managerial leaders in this kind of board played a vital role in mediating between different managerial and clinical perspectives characteristic of arenas within the NHS. This defining work often involves rethinking the interfaces between previously overdefined and separate services that have become established under a contract-driven and somewhat adversarial model of commissioning. Issues of continued viability of particular provider organisations may need to be faced, but this is more likely to be done effectively if commissioners join providers in thinking through what a viable future might look like for them. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals xxi provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY The research found that, despite the limitations to the expected institutional work of service redesign using local commissioning, some clinicians in and around CCGs did rise to the challenge and seized the opportunity to find ways to create new and/or amended institutions. The report draws out the lessons from these more creative attempts. The processes of leadership, which we reveal in three different arenas (strategic, operational planning and service delivery), are illustrated in the context of CCGs; however, they also have relevance and carry lessons far beyond these particular institutions. CCGs happen to provide the natural experimental conditions, but how the dynamics of the interplay between policy-makers, managers and clinicians actually play out is of central relevance. Lessons can therefore be learned that go beyond these particular circumstances. Novel examples of active clinical leadership in new forms of service design were uncovered. These occurred at different levels and in different arenas, and the patterns are described and illustrated in this report. At the other extreme, many CCGs struggled even to find GPs willing to serve on CCG governing bodies. In a significant number of cases, non-clinical managers rather than clinicians exercised the most influence; in yet other cases, hybrid manager/clinicians exercised influence. The problem perceived by many GPs was that too many non-clinical managers took their lead from the hierarchical structures of NHS England (NHSE) and thus the centre-led influence persisted. Moreover, within 3 years of their existence, other major nationally led initiatives and policy priorities took centre stage. Notably, STPs, launched in 2016, handed strategic service redesign to larger institutional footprints than the CCGs. Likewise, the influential NHSE initiative, the Five Year Forward View, placed emphasis on integration and collaboration rather than competition and commissioning. Many clinical leaders gravitated towards new provider organisations, such as the federations of general practices and other forms of large-scale general practice, rather than to the commissioning bodies. Despite these challenges and limitations, we report on cases where GPs were encouraged by the climate of devolved leadership to seize the opportunity to redesign primary care by extending the reach and the quality of general practice. New workforce teams were constructed around GP surgeries and multiple professions brought in to provide more holistic care for patients – especially those with long-term conditions. Other examples of effective clinical leadership included changes to urgent care. The report examines initiatives in which GPs worked in tandem with paramedics and attended to emergency calls which would otherwise have resulted in ambulances inappropriately conveying patients to accident and emergency. Other examples include instances in which CCG leaders took greater responsibility to improve services offered by the hospital trusts. One of the more far-reaching attempts to leverage clinical leadership to redesign the health-care system concerned those instances in which integrated care programmes were launched. These brought together diverse health specialists alongside social workers and other support services to redesign the approach to care at population level so that it was more proactive rather than merely reactive, as had more traditionally been the case. Conclusions The report reveals details and illustrations of the processes of leadership by clinicians, by managers and by both in tandem. It demonstrates how these processes are played out in three different arenas. The analysis shows how institutional work in each of these arenas needs to take place interactively if a difference is to be made and sustained. Many instances were found where plans were constructed at the strategic level which failed to make a difference because the additional implementation work was not adequately done. Our analysis revealed the importance of the middle-level operational work, much of which took place in the arena of programme boards and related mid-level bodies.
Appropriate modifications and additions from the original have been made for the 21st Century purchase avanafil 50mg visa. A thorough understanding of its mechanism and recognition is essential to all persons (and computers) who interpret ECGs purchase avanafil 100 mg. Before we can understand aberrant ventricular conduction we must first review how normal conduction of the electrical impulse occurs in the heart (Figure 1) avanafil 50mg fast delivery. The AV node provides sufficient conduction delay to allow atrial contraction to contribute to ventricular filling effective avanafil 100mg. Following slow AV node conduction high velocity conduction tracts deliver the electrical impulse to the right and left ventricles (through the His bundle, bundle branches and fascicles, and into the Purkinje network). Near- simultaneous activation of the two ventricles results in a NORMAL, NARROW QRS COMPEX (60-109 ms QRS duration). Should conduction delay or block occur in one of the two bundle branches an ABNORMAL WIDE QRS COMPLEX will reflect sequential activation of the ventricles. Figure 1 (note: the left bundle often has a third branch called the septal fascicle, not shown in the above figure) The next ECG strip (Figure 2) illustrates a basic principle of AVC. AVC refers to a temporary alteration of QRS morphology when one might expect a normal QRS complex. Permanent or rate- dependent bundle branch block (BBB) is NOT AVC. The ECG illustrated in Figure 2 from lead V1 begins with two normal sinus beats followed by a premature atrial complex (PAC, first arrow). The narrow QRS complex of the PAC resembles the QRS morphology of the sinus beats. After an incomplete pause, another sinus beat is followed by a slightly earlier PAC. If not careful one might mistake this wide funny looking beat (FLB) as a PVC and attach a different clinical significance (and possible therapy). The diagram and examples on p19-20 also illustrate the different “fates” of PACs. The important clues to recognizing AVC in Figure 2 are: 1. Using normal conduction pathways: Cycle-length dependent (aka, Ashman phenomenon) Rate-dependent tachycardia or bradycardia 2. It should be emphasized that although RBBB morphology is the most common form of AVC, LBBB or block in one or more of its three fascicles may also occur, particularly in persons with more advanced left heart disease or those taking cardiovascular drugs. In healthy people the right bundle branch has a slightly longer refractory period than the left bundle at normal heart rates and, therefore, is more likely to be unavailable when an early PAC enters the ventricles. Feature #5, the “second-in-a row” phenomenon, will be illustrated later in this section. Same initial r wave as the normal QRS complex (in lead V1) 5. Richard Ashman who first described, in 1947, AVC of the RBBB variety in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ashman reasoned, from 32 observing ECG rhythms in patients with a-fib, that the refractory period (during which conducting tissue is recovering and cannot be activated) was directly proportional to the RR cycle length or heart rate. The longer the cycle length (or slower the heart rate) the longer the refractory period. In Figure 3 PACs (arrows) are normally conducted when the preceding cycle length is of short or medium duration but are blocked in the right bundle if the preceding RR cycle is long. Ashman observed this in atrial fibrillation when long RR cycles were followed by short RR cycles and the QRS terminating the short RR cycle was wide in duration (looking like RBBB). The first PAC (first arrow in V1) conducts to the ventricles with a normal QRS duration because the preceding cycle was of normal or medium length. Both PACs have identical coupling intervals from the preceding sinus P wave. Thus, a long cycle-short cycle sequence often leads to AVC. Unfortunately this sequence helps us UNDERSTAND AVC but is not DIAGNOSTIC OF AVC. PVCs may also occur in a long cycle-short cycle sequence. It is important, therefore, to have other clues to the differential diagnosis of funny looking QRS beats (FLBs). Henry Marriott, a wonderful master teacher of electrocardiography and author of many outstanding ECG textbooks and journal articles offered valuable morphologic clues to aberrant QRS morphologies (especially as seen in lead V1). These morphologies contrasted with the QRS complexes often seen with PVCs and enhanced our ability to diagnose AVC. For example, if the QRS in lead V1 is predominately up-going or positive (Figure 4) the differential diagnosis is between RBBB aberrancy and ventricular ectopy usually from the left ventricle. A 33 careful look at each of the 5 QRS morphologies in Figure 4 will identify the “Las Vegas” betting odds of making the correct diagnosis.
However order avanafil 200 mg without prescription, as yet no erential cleavage of APP to nonamyloidogenic forms purchase avanafil 100 mg with amex. Yet reports of studies on the role of these agents in any aspects another approach focuses on enhancing the breakdown or of Alzheimer treatment have been published buy 100 mg avanafil mastercard. This approach adopts the view that inflammatory mechanisms in the Alzheimer brain are potentially beneficial and facilitate the removal of A from GINKGO BILOBA the brain order avanafil 200 mg. Finally, the enhanced toxicity of aggregated A encourages therapeutics designed to block the aggregation The broad use of vitamin and herbal preparations, facili- of A. All these approaches are in various stages of clinical tated by their general availability without prescription, en- development. This tase, also termed -amyloid cleavage enzymes (BACE) extract, termed Egb761, was tested in a 52-week study of (104–109). The success of this effort encourages combina- mild to severely demented outpatients with various forms torial chemistry and screening efforts designed to identify of dementia including Alzheimer disease and multiinfarct small lipophilic compounds that could inhibit BACE activ- dementia. One-third of all patients entered into the study ity and thereby limit A production. The logic of this ap- did not provide 52-week endpoint data. A small and statisti- proach is unquestioned, but the presence of relatively high cally significant effect was found on the ADAS-cog, but no levels of BACE in the pancreas leads to the question of effect was found on the Clinical Global Index (CGI). Thus, the role that BACE may play in biological functions whose by a prior standard set by the FDA to establish efficacy of activity, if inhibited, could cause significant adverse events. Nonethe- Although -secretase has not yet been cloned, a -secre- less, this compound continues to be widely used, even tase inhibitor is currently in clinical trial (104). However, though it has been reported to cause spontaneous bleeding the intimate relationship between presenilins and -secre- and it may interact with anticoagulant and antiplatelet ag- tase could have implications for the ultimate safety of this gregating agents (99). If, in fact, presenilins influence the critically in- volved Notch pathway (37), a host of potential adverse ef- fects could arise from inhibiting the activity of presenilins. APPROACH TO ALTERING AMYLOID Still, elucidation of the clinical effects of the -secretase DEPOSITION inhibitors will be eagerly awaited. Transgenic mice overexpressing A have been used as a Increasingly, amyloid deposition is seen as one of the earliest vehicle to determine whether inoculation with the A pep- components, if not the earliest, of the pathologic process tide could produce an immune response that would alter A in Alzheimer disease, as well as an initiating event in neu- concentrations in a mouse brain (110). Furthermore, the elucidation of the before the deposition of substantial amyloid deposits in the Chapter 87: Current and Experimental Therapeutics of Alzheimer Disease 1249 brain subsequently displayed little amyloid deposition. Even REFERENCES more remarkably, animals in which amyloid deposition had 1. Washington, DC: National Institute on Aging, National yloid plaque load following inoculation. Vaccination with A protects transgenic 29:327:1253–1259. A controlled trial of normally occur in the mouse model of Alzheimer disease. JAMA During testing for potential deleterious effects of the vac- 1992;268:2523–2529. A 30-week ran- domized controlled trial of high-dose tacrine in patients with maze test of working memory. JAMA 1994;271: treated transgenic mice show memory deficits, the A -vacci- 985–991. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1997;11: that will extend to the brain. Clinical global measure response to a peptide that already exists in healthy humans of dementia: position paper from the International Working Group on Harmonization of Dementia Drug Guidelines. Alz- would also produce an autoimmune response must be con- heimer Dis Assoc Disord 1997;11:8–18. Still, results obtained in transgenic mice are so dra- 9. Late-onset alanine There are numerous theoretic possibilities to altering the aminotransferase increase with tacrine. Congo red, a dye that readily binds A , has been of fatal hepatotoxicity? Other approaches have included the ease, in healthy young and elderly subjects. J Clin Pharmacol development of antibodies directed specifically at A or 1993;33:1086–1089. Acetylcholinesterase has been found to augment disease.
In one of these studies a statistical analysis was done to compare the mean monthly rate of progression to AF or adverse drug effects purchase avanafil 200 mg line. The rate among those on propafenone was significantly lower than the rate among those 261 on sotalol (4 avanafil 200 mg generic. In the two studies comparing amiodarone with propafenone order 50mg avanafil with amex, the proportion of patients with the composite outcome was higher in patients receiving propafenone versus amiodarone except 261 in one study at 24 months; however avanafil 200mg sale, statistical analyses were not done for any of these 259,261 comparisons. Both studies also assessed the mean monthly progression to AF or adverse drug effects and found a lower rate with amiodarone than with propafenone; however, the difference was not statistically significant in either study (amiodarone 3. Rates of the composite outcome were higher in those receiving sotalol versus amiodarone except at 1 month (see Table 19), but statistical analyses were not reported. The mean monthly rate of progression to AF or adverse drug events was statistically significantly lower for amiodarone as compared with sotalol in both studies (see Table 19). In the study comparing amiodarone with dronedarone, there was a statistically significantly higher rate of recurrence of AF or premature drug discontinuation due to side effects or lack of efficacy at 1 year among those on dronedarone compared with amiodarone (HR 1. Studies reporting a composite outcome of recurrence of AF or adverse drug effect Study Sample Time Point Results P-Value Size (N) Kochiadakis, 186 1 month Amiodarone: 28% NR 260 2000 Sotalol: 13% 12 months Amiodarone: 41. Propafenone) Kochiadakis, 254 12 months Sotalol: 50% NR 258 2004 Propafenone: 59% Mean monthly progression Sotalol: 5. Arrhythmic death (including sudden cardiac arrest) and all- cause mortality are described above as separate outcomes. Of these 11 studies, 5 incorporated adverse drug events resulting in drug discontinuation into a composite outcome with recurrence 224,258-261 of AF to assess the effectiveness of the drug(s). These studies had a more robust method of collecting adverse drug event information than other studies. The method of collecting adverse drug events and the definitions of adverse drugs varied between studies, making comparison between studies and summaries of studies challenging. In these 2,747 patients, only 7 proarrhythmias were reported (1 in a patient 245,258,269 receiving propafenone and 6 in patients receiving sotalol). Tachycardia was reported in 3 230,259 patients (2 receiving propafenone, and 1 receiving either sotalol or propafenone). Bradycardia was one of the more commonly reported adverse drug reactions, reported in 161 patients in 9 studies (73 on dronedarone, 61 on amiodarone, 15 on sotalol, 2 on propafenone, 3 224,230,241,245,258-261,269 on bisoprolol, and 7 on either sotalol or propafenone). Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were reported in 5 studies that included 668 patients with amiodarone, 138 patients with propafenone, 136 with sotalol, 249 with dronedarone, and 202 with either sotalol or 224,230,259-261 propafenone. Hypothyroidism was reported in 29 patients with amiodarone and 2 patients with dronedarone. Hyperthyroidism was reported in 20 patients with amiodarone. Results in Specific Subgroups of Interest Six studies report outcomes by treatment arm for subgroups of patients based on characteristics such as age, sex, type of AF, duration of AF, left atrial size, and presence of heart 180,230,258-261 disease. With few exceptions, the results of primary outcomes did not change by 180,230,260,261 subgroup. In one of these, the probability of remaining in sinus rhythm continued to be significantly greater among patients without ischemic heart disease on amiodarone compared with sotalol (p<0. In the other three subgroup analyses comparing amiodarone with sotalol, there was no such difference between patients with and without a history of heart 230,260,261 disease. In one of three studies comparing amiodarone with sotalol and reporting subgroup analyses by age, there was a higher rate of recurrence of AF or adverse effects from the medication among those patients taking sotalol who were >65 years of age compared with those 260 who were ≤65 years of age (p=0. Finally, in the study comparing the effect of amiodarone with propafenone on the outcome of the recurrence of AF alone, there was a statistically significant lower rate of recurrence among women on amiodarone compared with women on 259 propafenone, but this difference was not seen among males. Strength of Evidence Our review identified 83 studies that evaluated the comparative safety and effectiveness of rhythm-control procedures and drugs for maintenance of sinus rhythm. These studies demonstrated that among patients with AF, there is high strength of evidence that rhythm control using transcatheter PVI is superior to rhythm control using antiarrhythmic medications in reducing recurrent AF over 12 months of followup in patients with paroxysmal AF. This evidence is strongest in younger patients with little to no structural heart disease, and with no or mild enlargement of the left atrium. The evidence also suggested that the duration of AF is an important predictor of response to PVI. Our review also examined whether complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation in addition to PVI increases the odds of maintaining sinus rhythm during followup compared with PVI only. Based on data from 9 RCTs, we found that CFAE ablation in addition to PVI did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in maintenance of sinus rhythm compared with PVI only. By combining data from nine RCTs, our review is the largest to date to address this question. Unlike prior reviews, our review showed a potential benefit, but this finding did not 90 reach statistical significance, and we therefore concluded that CFAE ablation in addition to PVI did not increase maintenance of sinus rhythm compared with PVI alone.