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By M. Cole. Washington & Jefferson College. 2018.

Everyyear generic tadapox 80 mg,about9million need two years of treatment instead of 6 months and the people sufer from active tuberculosis purchase tadapox 80mg amex, and about 2 million treatments are 70 times more costly in addition to much die because of this disease [1] discount tadapox 80 mg without a prescription. Tuberculosishasbeenreportedinall national studies stated that the resistance against antitu- the provinces in Iran buy cheap tadapox 80mg online, but this rate was higher in eastern part, berculosis antibiotics exists all around the world, and the as neighboring to Afghanistan and Pakistan which have the global prevalence of primary resistance is almost 10. Tis study was 0 designed to characterize the epidemiology of drug resistance Susceptible M. In this study, all culture positive samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in northeast of Iran during 2012 and 2013 were referred to Regional Reference Laboratory Table 2: Te distribution of drug resistance by age. All isolates were examined by Ziehl Neelsen staining and biochemical and phenotypic Age Sensitive Resistant Number Percentage methods. Biochemical and phenotypic methods for identif- range cases cases cation of mycobacteria include observation of rate of growth, < 5 0 0 0 0 colony morphology, pigmentation, and biochemical profles. Total 82 68 14 100% Also a multiplex polymerase chain reaction was carried out for confrmation as prescribed previously [11–14]. Fourisolateswereresistantagainstbothisoni- as Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined against iso- azid and rifampin. Tree isolates (3%) were resistant against niazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin by standard isoniazid and streptomycin and 4 isolates (4%) were resistant proportional method using Lowenstein-Jensen medium as against rifampin and streptomycin. Te proportion of resistant bacilli against given drug is old, and the most resistance cases were among 15–45-year-old then determined by comparing these numbers and express- groups. Susceptibility was As the epidemiological data of 18 patients were unclear, defned as no or less than 1% growth on media containing the we performed all the analysis on the remaining 82 patients. To ensure Mycobacterium tuberculosis, there were 45 male patients and that results of drug susceptibility testing are reliable and accu- 37femalepatients. T eagerangewasbetween16and94 rate, the standard strain H37Rv and two strains of drug resis- years old, with the average 53 years old. Results with resistance and multiple drug resistance were analyzed and there was not any signifcant relation between these Among 125 patients in this study, 25 samples were diagnosed parameters and resistance (Table 3). And only one patient diagnosed with berculosis antibiotics, and 14 isolates were resistant. As they received sample from Grading scale of smear positivity Sensitive Resistance value all over the country, this rate sounds highly reliable. And also in Hadizadeh and colleagues’ study in Tehran between 2006 Total 68 (100%) 14 (100%) and 2009, the resistance against isoniazid and rifampin was 11% and 10%, respectively, and 2. Tis lower rate of resistance might be due Although the grading scale of smear positivity was highly to obtaining sample from restricted regions with low rate of associated with multiple drug resistant, the relation was not resistance. On the contrary, the reported rate for resistance statistically signifcant (Table 5). Discussion and 55% resistance rate against rifampin, isoniazid, ethambu- tol, and streptomycin, respectively, as they conducted a study Nowadays, drug resistance is the main problem in controlling on 84 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Buali Hospital tuberculosis in the world. Traditionally, patients with drug resistant tuber- for tuberculosis in Zahedan (southeast of Iran) among 88 culosishavebeenassumedthatacquireddrugresistance tuberculosis cases [21]. Te term “acquired interpreted by considering neighboring of that region with drug resistance” in patients with tuberculosis implies that Afghanistan and Pakistan as the most prevalent area for resistance has developed during treatment [16]. BioMed Research International 5 In one study in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, drug resis- Te authors would like to thank Dr. A study in Pakistan during 2009–2011 showed that the resistance rate against isoniazid was 15. In this study, the [2] Communicable Disease Management Center, Tuberculosis resistance rate against two drugs was 20% [24]. Considering Statistics of Iran, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, these data, our resistance rate is much lower which could be 2011. Madan, “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus down the increasing incidence of resistant tuberculosis and aureus and multidrug resistant tuberculosis: part 2,” Occupa- has prevented a widespread resistance in this community. Such patients ofen were treated as tuber- culosis which did not respond and categorized as treatment [8]A. Tis means that, in addition to receiving inappropri- cellular level,” European Respiratory Journal,vol. Jawetz, Jawetz,Melnick,&Adelberg’sMedical in our study, the resistance against streptomycin was much Microbiology,McGraw-Hill,26thedition,2013. Tille, Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology,Mosby,13th this drug for other diseases. Conclusions “Rapid detection and species identifcation of Mycobacterium in parafn-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction,” As northeast of Iran is in neighborhood of Afghanistan and Diagnostic Molecular Pathology,vol. Mardani, “Drug resistant tuberculosis: a world problem,” Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences,vol. Dawoudi, “Prevalence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug- resistant tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran,” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal,vol.

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